Ⅰ. The way of exporting/importing a vehicle
CBU (Complete Built Unit)
Completely built unit is the terminology when a car/automobile is exported or imported to/from some other country as a complete car fully assembled. These automobiles do not require an assembly before they can be sold out to the buyers in the target country’s markets.
CKD (Completely Knocked Down)
Completely knocked down car/automobile is one which is imported or exported in parts and not as one assembled unit. Such units are first sent to an assembly plant in the target country where all these parts are assembled and one complete car/vehicle is made using the imported components.
SKD(Semi Knocked Down)
Used to describe a product that is exported in a set of parts that have been partly put together, and which are then all put together for sale to customers.
CBU & CKD/SKD Comparison
The Government imposed excessively high import duties on CBU vehicles to encourage foreign car manufacturers to build factories and produce their vehicles in the country.
Therefore, CBU and CKD/SKD have a sharp difference in the import duties.
Ⅱ. Mode of Handling
Box Container Ship
This is the most common type of container ship design. They can be loaded only with marine containers and cargo handling is carried out by quay side cranes that belong to the port authorities. Such ships always ply only on major container ports that are equipped with cranes.
Lo Lo Ship
Lift on/Lift off ships are equipped with their on cranes which are used to load the containers on and off the ship. These ships always ply only in smaller container terminals that are not equipped with container handling cranes, like the bigger terminals.
Ro Ro Ship
Ro-Ro is an acronym for Roll-on/Roll-off. Roll-on/Roll-off ships are vessels that are used to carry wheeled cargo.
The Ro-Ro ship is different from Lo-Lo(Lift on / Lift off) ship that uses a crane to load the cargo.
The vehicles in the ship are loaded and unloaded by means of built-in ramps. Normally these ramps are made towards the stern (backside) of the ship. In some ships, they are also found on the bow side (front) as well as the sides.
There are various types of Ro-Ro vessels such as ferries, cruise ferries, cargo ships and barges. The Ro-Ro vessels that are exclusively used for transporting cars and trucks across oceans are known as Pure Car Carriers (PCC) and Pure Car & Truck Carriers (PCTC) respectively.
Unlike other cargos that are measured in metric tonnes, the Ro-Ro cargo is measured in a unit called lanes in meters(LIMs). LIM is calculated by multiplying cargo length in meters by the number of decks and by its width in lanes. The lane width will differ from vessel to vessel and there are a number of industry standards.
Advantages of the Ro Ro Ship
The Ro Ro Ships offer a number of advantages over traditional ships.
The primary advantages are as follows.
For the shipper, the advantage is speed. Since cars and lorries are able to drive straight on to the ship at one port and then drive off at the other port with a few minutes of the ship docking, it saves a lot of time for the shipper.
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Convenience of Tourism
The ship has also proved extremely popular with holiday makers and private car owners. It has significantly contributed to the growth of tourism.
The person can take his car from one country to another by sea with the help of the Ro-Ro vessel.